Film Developer Notes
From: Chris Johnson's Film Development Information
Originally from: http://members.home.net/hmpi/Misc/Charts/charts.htm (404)
KODAK D-76 is a general-purpose developer sold as a powder that can be used straight from a stock solution or diluted one part stock to one part water. D-76 gives slightly finer grain. in and is replenishable when used straight.
ILFORD ID-11 PLUS is very similar to D-76 but gives finer grain and is good for Expansion developments.
AGFA RODINAL is a concentrated liquid developer that produces grainy but extremely sharp negatives. Rodinal acts as a compensating developer when used in high dilutions.
EDWAL FG-7 is a fine-grained liquid developer that has a slight compensating effect when used at dilutions of 1:15 or greater. Adding sodium sulfite will reduce your development time and gives you finer grain. To make a 9% solution of sodium sulfite, add 45 grams of sodium sulfite to 15 ounces of water. Add one ounce of FG-7 to make a 1:15 solution. (See my developing notes regarding Sodium Sulfite )
HC-110 is an excellent all-purpose developer that comes in liquid form which makes it quick and easy to use. Kodak lists a number of dilution possibilities on the bottle. Dilution B is one part stock solution to seven parts water.
ILFORD PERCEPTOL is a softer-working, fine-grained developer that is very useful for Contraction developments because of its relatively long Normal Development time.
KODAK T-MAX is an excellent and versatile high-energy developer designed specially for Kodak's T-Max films. T-Max gives good contrast and film speed with any film, but it is especially good with T-Max 100 and 400 when used at 75 degree. T-Max developer comes in a liquid stock that is mixed 1:4 for a working solution.
KODAK T-MAX RS developer is very similar in quality to T-Max developer except that it produces negatives with slightly more contrast. T-Max RS is formulated to be “self-replenishing”. This means that after you mix a one-gallon supply of T-Max RS, you can divide it into two half-gallon bottles. The first bottle is your working solution, and the second bottle can be used to replenish the first without changing the dilution. Kodak recommends replenishing at a rate of 1 1⁄2 ounces per roll processed. This system is easy to use and has the advantage of making it impossible to over-replenish. When the second half is used up, you can assume that the developer is exhausted and ready to be replaced.
Based upon the results of my most current Zone System tests, what follows are some answers to commonly asked questions regarding films and developers.
Q) What film/developer combination gives the finest grain with good shadow detail and the best overall contrast?
A) T-Max 100 in T-Max developer at 75 degrees. Delta 100 in FG-7 w/s.s
Q) What film/developer combination gives the fastest speed with the least grain?
A) Ilford HP-5+ in Edwal FG-7 with a 9% solution of sodium sulfite.
Q) What developers give the finest grain with good shadow detail and the best overall contrast with the films you have tested?
Film Recommended Developer Kodak P3200 Kodak HC-110 (B) Kodak Tri-X Kodak T-Max or Edwal FG-7 w/s.s. Kodak Plus -X T-Max or Kodak HC-110 (B) Kodak T-Max 400 Kodak T-Max Kodak T-Max 100 Kodak T-Max Ilford HP-5+ Edwal FG-7 w/s.s. Ilford FP-4+ Edwal FG-7 w/s.s. Ilford Delta 400 Edwal FG-7 w/s.s.
Q) Which developer gives the finest grain and most film speed and contrast with Kodak T-Max P3200
A) Kodak HC-110 dilution B.
Q) Which developer film combination gives the most speed grain for special purposes?
A) Kodak T-Max P3200 in Agfa Rodinol.
There are a number of factors that will effect your development time.
The most important are:
- AGITATION - The longer and more aggressively you agitate the film in the developer, the shorter your development time will be. Consistency is very important.
My agitation plan for roll film is as follows:
- Constant agitation for the first 30 seconds
- Rest for 30 seconds
- Agitate for 5 seconds for every 30 seconds up to the total development time.
- DILUTION OF THE DEVELOPER - It is extremely important that you accurately measure your chemistry every time you process your film. Changing the dilution has a dramatic effect on the contrast of your negatives. Very dilute developers reduce negative contrast. Higher concentrations increase contrast.
- TEMPERATURE - Once you establish a working temperature for your chemistry, make sure that you don’t stray from this standard by more than one degree.