Happy 4th of July

Composition, Elements and Framing


The above photo looks like an interesting story. Why is she hiding from her upset father? Is that really her father, how much trouble is she going to get into when he finds her? What did she do to upset him?

However, the above stories would all be wrong. The power of cropping the image in the way I did isolates to just these two people in the photo which creates a connection between them. As the viewer, we try to fill in that connection with a story. In actuality there was no connection, the girl was part of a school group and the man just happened to walk up the stairs and look around.

I setup to take a shot there because I liked the shark jaws above and people would walk up the dark stairs and into the bright room and take a second to orient themselves. It wasn’t until looking at them afterwards that I noticed the above composition.

Here is the original photo not cropped, which you can see the other children and part of the group she was with.


Beach Day







I used Lightroom’s new photo merge feature to stitch together six photos to create the following panorama, it created a 17,166 x 10,661 picture weighing in at 561mb. Yowzers!


Photography Fundamentals

Getting into photography can be intimidating with all the jargon and technical terms. Your camera itself is pretty intimidating with the dials, menus and buttons galore. This guide is to explain some of the fundamentals and help improve your photography.

Photography: Light and Time

Photography is all about recording light, which is exactly the definition of the word. In photography, there are three aspects that going into the recording of light:

  1. Quantity: How much light are your recording
  2. Time: How long do you record the light
  3. Sensitivity: How sensitive is the material recording the light on

The combined setting of these aspects is called the exposure. There are controls within your camera to control the overall exposure. They are Aperture (quantity), Shutter Speed (time) and ISO (sensitivity). In auto-exposure mode, the camera tries to average them all out to get a balanced exposure. However, you can adjust each of the controls to get different results in your image.


The aperture is the mechanism inside a lens that controls how much light gets through. It is measured by numbers called stops, for example f/8, f/11, f/16. It is a ratio of the focal length; so the smaller the number, the wider the opening. The difference between the numbers is a doubling of light, so f/8 will let through twice as much light as f/11.

Aperture from f/16 to f/2.8

Aperture from f/16 to f/2.8

The size of the aperture effects the depth of field which is how much of the picture is in focus or blurred. If you want a blurred out background, open up the aperture to as wide as possible, like f/2.8, f/2 or lower.

Blurred Background. f/2, 1/220, ISO 1600

Blurred Background. f/2, 1/220, ISO 1600

If you want super sharp images which has everything in focus through out, set your aperture to f/11, f/16 or higher

Sharp Image. f/11 - 1/160s - ISO 400

Sharp Image. f/11 – 1/160s – ISO 400

For me, the aperture is the most important control so I normally shoot in aperture priority mode which lets me control the aperture; the camera’s auto-exposure will adjust shutter speed and ISO to properly expose the scene. Aperture priority controlled by setting your camera’s mode to A.

Aperture Priority on Sony RX100ii

Aperture Priority on Sony RX100ii

To control the aperture, set the mode to A (or Av on some cameras) and then change the different aperture settings using a dial on the lens itself, or one of the wheels on your camera.

Shutter Speed

The shutter speed is how long the camera records light. While the shutter is open, the lens gathers light onto the sensor and the camera is recording the world until the shutter closes. Often this is only for a thousandth of a second but can be as long as minutes or even years.

f/8, 1/15, ISO 3200, flash fired

f/8, 1/15, ISO 3200, flash fired

The image and subject will look different depending on the shutter speed. Here are a few time guidelines:

1/1000 and faster Freeze extreme fast action (race cars)
1/250 and faster Freeze kids, everyday sports and action
1/60 Typical low bar for hand-held and avoiding blur
1/8 Add motion blur, panning subject
~2 seconds Add smooth blur to water (tripod)
30+ seconds Low-light and night photography
15+ minutes Star trails and astro photography

The main points I look for in shutter speed is if I’m shooting my kids and don’t want blur, I try for an exposure of at least 1/250. Otherwise I just try to keep it above 1/60 to avoid hand-held blur. For night photography the exposure time is a whole other thing; you end up with some really long exposures.

You can also shoot in shutter priority mode, usually specified by S or Tv. In shutter priority, you set what shutter speed you want to take the photo, and the camera’s auto-exposure will adjust the aperture and ISO automatically.

I personally don’t shoot in shutter priority mode too often, it tends to be more common for action and sports photographers.


The ISO is a standard for film speed; its a measure of the film material sensitivity to light. Back in the film days, you would buy a roll a film at a set ISO based on what you were going to take pictures of. Now in digital, you can adjust ISO from shot-to-shot giving more flexibility.

I don’t really understand how digital ISO works, but the technology doesn’t matter, all we need to know is it mirrors film behavior and the lower ISO will give clearer images and higher ISO will give grainy or noisy images. Film grain looks a bit better than digital noise, but a small tradeoff for the conveniences of digital.

Top: f/8 - 12m - ISO 200Bottom: f/8, 18s, ISO 6400

Top: f/8 – 12m – ISO 200
Bottom: f/8, 18s, ISO 6400

Older materials in the beginning of photography were not nearly as sensitive and would require several minute exposures. Making portraits required the subject to sit still for that time, probably why no one smiled in older photos.

Class photo from 1890's

Class photo from 1890’s

ISO is the most flexible of the settings, I almost always leave this in auto mode and let the camera adjust as necessary. If I’m in a scene which is just too dark and requires a high ISO, I’ll take the grainy image. I’d rather have grain then motion blur from using too low of a shutter speed.

My night photography is a little different, since I’m using a tripod and will have longer exposures, I don’t want the grainy images. So I’ll manually fix the ISO to the lowest setting, typically an ISO 100 or 200.

Exposure Trade Offs

As you might see above, adjusting one of the settings also requires changing another. So if I want to get a long exposure to record star trails, I’m likely going to need a very small aperture and low ISO.

If you want a shallow depth of field on a sunny day, this requires a wide open aperture which is a lot of light, so will require a very fast shutter speed and low ISO.

If you are indoors and want to shoot a scene with a lot in focus, this requires a smaller aperture, slower shutter speed, and higher ISO.

The next section will cover how your camera calculates these and sets the auto-exposure.


The camera has a light meter built-in which measures the intensity of the light. It averages all of the light in the scene and creates an exposure. The camera makes a big assumption that the average will match a middle gray. The camera doesn’t really know what you are taking photos of so assumes on average the average is best.

You can see this by setting your camera to auto-exposure and take a picutre of a solid white wall, a solid black wall and a solid gray wall. Without any adjustments, the camera will produce the same result: a solid gray wall.

I didn’t find a grey wall, but here’s an example illustrating it. The square on the far left is both white and black parts of the wall. The center is a photo of just the white wall, and the right square is a photo of just the black part of the wall.


Understanding this will help with setting your exposure. There are a couple of different ways to adjust for this. The most common and easiest way for me is to use the exposure compensation dial, which is the +/- dial.

Exposure Compensation Dial on Fuji XT-1

Exposure Compensation Dial on Fuji XT-1

This allows you to add more exposure, by changing to +1, +2, +3 – the number is how many more stops of light you want added. So +2 would be adding two stops of light which is 4x as much light. Conversely for minus, -1 would be removing a stop of light.

The most common time I use this is for a backlit picture, for example a person standing in front of a window or a very bright sky or background. In this scenario, the camera sees all the bright light, like the white wall and reduces the exposure to try to average down the scene. This leaves the person’s face dark, so you need to adjust the exposure compensation and add light.

Backlit photo with +1.5 exposure compensation

Backlit photo with +1.5 exposure compensation

In the photo above, the straight from camera exposure left the main subject too dark, so I dialed up the exposure compensation, in this case adding 1.5 stops of light, which might of been a touch too much.

Metering Modes

Another way to adjust how the camera determines the exposure is to fake out its meter. Since the camera wants to make the scene a middle grey, you point the camera at a grey or neutral subject like grass and get the proper exposure; then manually set the exposure so it doesn’t change when taking the real photo.

Cameras have different ways to set the metering mode, different modes include spot metering, matrix metering and a few others. These tell the camera how much of the scene to use for measuring the exposure. Spot metering uses a smaller area, matrix uses a wider area, etc.

The metering modes are a bit trickier and requires a little extra work in my mind. I have a couple grey cards but never carry them around. I find it easier to take a picture, review and then dial-up or down the exposure using +/- as needed, another advantage of digital.


Most modern day lenses are really good and will capture sharp images without a problem. You can spend a great deal more on a lens and the difference will be hardly noticeable by the majority of people. Especially when photos are only shared online and not enlarged to really large prints.


My general advice for beginners is to use what you have until you notice a limitation. You can improve a lot of your photography by better technique and learning how to properly expose before the lens is any limitation. Likewise, you can use an expensive lens poorly yielding poor results.

Lens are described by two numbers, the focal length and the maximum aperture. The focal length is the “zoom factor” or what field of view does the lens capture. A wide angle lens is a low number like 24mm, a telephoto lens is large number like 100mm. A normal lens is typically between 35mm and 50mm, close to how our eye sees a scene.


The second number is the maximum aperture, the same aperture number mentioned above. Good lenses are often called fast lenses, they have a large maximum aperture such as f/1.4 which allows more light in and also able to blur out the background more. However, a large aperture also means a physically larger lens, which may be less fun to carry around.

Here is an example of three Canon 50mm lenses, their f/1.8, f/1.4 and f/1.2. You can see the f/1.2 is significantly bigger even though they all have the same focal length (zoom). Plus, you’ll pay for all that extra glass, the f/1.8 is $125 and the f/1.2 around $1,500.

Canon 50mm f/1.8, 50mm f/1.4 and 50mm f/1.2

Canon 50mm f/1.8, 50mm f/1.4 and 50mm f/1.2

Lenses that can zoom in and out are described by the lowest focal length to the highest focal length, for example 18-55mm; which would be wide-angle at 18mm and zoom to 55mm. Also, these lenses tend to have a variable maximum aperture depending on what zoom, this is described by f/3.5-5.6. So at the widest angle the maximum aperture is f/3.5, but at the zoom level of 55mm the maximum aperture is f/5.6.

Together the lens would be described as a 18-55m f/3.5-5.6


This guide contains a lot of information and likely overwhelming if its new to you; learning the above covers the majority of photography and equipment involved. Most advanced photography techniques and tips are based off adjusting the above, so worthwhile to take your time and understand. When it comes down to it, photography is just managing how you record the light.

Each camera and model does things a little different, but the terms and concepts remain the same. To learn how to do something specifically with your camera either read your manual or google the term with your camera model, for example “Nikon D700 exposure compensation”.

I hope this helps, my best advice is really get out there and shoot, practice and learn; as the famous photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson said, Your first 10,000 photographs are your worst. The best way to learn is to start getting rid of those worst shots.

Tripod Not Required

Night photography usually means bringing a tripod and setting up for long exposures. This doesn’t have to always be the case, here are two ideas on taking some shots at night, no tripod required.

Bokeh Lights

One such type of shot you can take without a tripod is bokeh lights. Bokeh is simply the aesthetic of an out-of-focus area, in this case a light or lights. Bokeh shots are popular because they tend to be minimal, offering an uncluttered and slightly different view of a scene with lights. The Brooklyn Bridge example above, or these abstract lights are two examples of bokeh light photos.


How to take a bokeh lights photo

To take a bokeh lights photo, it is relatively straight-forward: open your aperture up to as wide as possible. Set your shutter-speed low enough that you don’t get camera shake, usually around 1/60. Let the camera set the auto ISO for the right exposure. If you are all manual, try ISO 3200 to start.

The biggest part is you want to be in manual focus mode, because your goal is to purposely make the photo out-of-focus. Point your camera at your scene and lights and crank the focus to achieve the size of effect you want.

Here is an example set starting with the Empire State building in focus and then making them more and more out of focus. All shots were taken at f/2.4, 1/45, ISO 3200.






Panning Lights

The second idea for taking photos at night without a tripod is to embrace the movement. You can still do a 3-4 second exposure without a tripod, you’ll get shake and blur but you can try to work with it. This is a bit trickier to get a result you’re happy with, but its fun to play around.

For panning, set your shutter speed to a 4 second exposure and adjust your aperture and ISO to compensate for the scene, you can try f/2.8 and ISO 1600 as a starting point. You want to move the camera slow and smooth as you go, I find it best to start moving and then press the shutter once going.

The following photos were all taken at Times Square around a 2-4 second exposure.

Walking to the Bank

Walking to the Bank

Caffeine Jitters

Caffeine Jitters

Dizzying Lights

Dizzying Lights

The second shot, Caffeine Jitters, wasn’t actually panning the camera; I opened the shutter and intentionally bumped the camera to get that jittery effect. You can get strange things when the camera starts moving, try it out and play around, see what you come up with.

Go out into the night

So, if you don’t have a tripod, or just don’t feel like carrying it around; you can still go out in the night and take some interesting shots. Get out there and happy shooting!

Film Mistakes

I mentioned yesterday my desire for a panorama film back for the Bronica ETRSi. I actually purchased a 35mm back which I thought was this back I wanted. It wasn’t. I discovered this after shooting a roll through, there are two different backs for the Bronica system. The 135N back, which I bought, allows for shooting normal 35mm format, the 135W is the wide angle back that I wanted.

I noticed something was up when I was half way through the roll, composing and shooting like it was a wide angle back but the counter and film didn’t stop. I kept shooting and was getting closer and closer to the 24-exp count of the roll and knew something wasn’t quite right, if this was wide it should have stopped around 12 or 15 frames.

Also, not only did I have a normal back, I loaded the back wrong. There is a slot that film should go through that blocks the frame. I loaded it across the top of this frame which led to some scratching but almost gave me what I wanted. If only the film advanced as I expected. However, everything got double exposed on each side making an interesting mess of it all.

One of the joys of film, easier to make mistakes. Remember, always run a test roll through any new camera or equipment.

Here are two shots that turned out interesting.



Reading at the Park

From my Bronica ETRSi, a medium format 645 camera on Kodak Portra. The Bronica is often referred to as the poor man’s Hasselblad, since it is a similar modular system with interchangeable backs and primarily a waist-level viewfinder.

I forgot how much I enjoyed shooting with the waist-level finder, its huge; giving a rich almost 3D view in a way that it is hard to explain if you haven’t looked through one. The bad thing, almost everything in view looks like an amazing shot, plus composition is reversed so a bit tricky.

I’ve been fascinated with formats recently and the Bronica 135W is an interesting back which shoots on 35mm film in a panorama format, giving you a 54mmx24mm negative. They are hard to find and expensive on eBay, so still searching for a bargain somewhere.

Tiny Photography Newsletter

I’m starting the Tiny Photography Newsletter, which is a newsletter about really small photos. Oh, not really, its a photography newsletter using the Tiny Letter service by Mailchimp and I really wasn’t creative enough to come up with a better name.

My goal for the newsletter is to publish interesting information and a bit of unique content around photography. As much as I love gear, I will avoid discussing it and focus mainly on the craft and art of photography. I’m aiming for weekly, but my last newsletter didn’t even make it to 10 issues, so we’ll see if this does any better.

Sign up now to receive the inaugural issue at Tiny Photography Newsletter.

As always, I welcome any suggestions, questions or comments. Send me email to marcus@mkaz.com.

What’s in my night photography bag?

Here’s almost everything pulled out of my typical bag I carry for a night photography shoot. It is a bit more than I normally carry, but night is a little less forgiving and you’re need a bit more equipment. Coffee and warm gloves might be most important.

See my Intro to Night Photography article for how I work and my basic night tips.

8 Years Film, 8 Years Digital

I noticed the other day I’ve been shooting digital for about as long as I shot film, this observation prompted this retrospective on my gear history and future.

I started to get “serious” about photography back in 1999, my first camera was a Canon EOS 3, the pro-sumer autofocus technical marvel of the time; it came with eye-tracking 45-point autofocus, just look where you want to focus and boom! A little gimmicky but pretty cool.

Continue reading

Reading at Yerba Buena

A photo inspired by the style of Edward Hopper, one of my all-time favorite painters. I recently borrowed Silent Theater: The Art of Edward Hopper which is a wonderful book on his art, definitely worth checking out.

Bunt Situation

Shot with Fuji X-T1 using a Nikon 28mm lens on a tilt-shifter adapter. A step up from my older homemade lenses, this gives a nice tilt effect in a controllable manner.

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